According to the III Labor Market Yearbook published on Friday by the Adecco Group Institute, Spain added in 2021 its thirteenth consecutive year as the country with the highest number of unemployed in the European Union (EU).
Thus, despite the fact that in 2021 it recovered all the jobs lost in the pandemic, with a general drop in unemployment, Spain, which represents 9.2% of the EU-27 population, had 22.8 % of its unemployed.
Adecco points out in its report that the employment of women recovered last year “more strongly” than that of men. Thus, the participation of women in total employment rose to 46.1%, a new historical record.
Moreover, between 2011 and 2021, while the number of men at work increased by 4.9%, the number of women increased by 10.3%, so that women took up almost two out of three jobs. created over the past decade. Despite this, the employment rate for men at the end of last year was more than 10 points higher than for women.
For the second consecutive year, health and education were again in 2021 the branches where employment grew the most, by 6.9%, its strongest increase since 2008. On the other hand, industry and trade were the only branches of activity to lose jobs for the second consecutive year. year.
According to Adecco, 8 of Spain’s 17 autonomous communities have recovered all the jobs lost during the pandemic, including Andalusia, Asturias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Catalonia, Extremadura, Madrid and Murcia.
Some 63% of jobs created last year were generated by the private sector, 26% by the public sector and 11% by self-employment. The total number of public sector employees rose for the seventh consecutive year, reaching a record high of 3.45 million and accounting for one in four jobs created last year.
Employment increases more among young people and those over 60
Employment grew last year to a greater extent among those under 24 and over 60 than in all other age groups. Whereas in 2001, only one in 25 employed people was aged 60 or over, this now represents 1 in 12 people.
The unemployment rate in Spain fell from 15.5% to 13.65% in 2021, reducing the unemployment rate for unemployed people with higher education from 10.2% to 9.2%.
For Adecco, this shows that job prospects for less educated people will be “worse”. “We cannot leave our unemployed to the fate of their decisions and their uncertainties”, underlines the group in its directory.
It also highlights the “scourge” of long-term unemployment in Spain, with 1.63 million people unemployed for at least a year and a proportion of long-term unemployed of 27%, three points above that of 2020 and the fourth highest percentage in the EU, averaging 20.6%.
The minimum wage exceeds that of the USA
According to Adecco, the minimum wage in Spain reached €1,126 in 2021, a figure 53% higher than in 2016 and higher than that of the United States, despite the fact that its GDP per capita is twice that of the United States. ‘Spain.
The yearbook points out that in Europe there is great diversity when it comes to minimum wages, since in nine countries there is no legal minimum wage and seven others have a minimum wage above 1,500 euros per month.
Adecco also points out that in 2021, Spain was below the EU average in terms of personnel dedicated to R&D&I, an indicator that has stagnated since 2010.